Photo by on

Emotions tend to play a dominate role in our everyday lives. A disruption of emotions can have an impact on everyone, however this impact is quite significant in people who experience mental illness. A particular mental illness that is entangled with emotions and regulation is (BPD). Theories behind this disorder explore the combination of specific biological and environmental factors in regard to BPD’s struggle with healthy emotional expression.

The of BPD states that BPD is a disorder of emotional dysregulation, and that emotional dysregulation is often the result of a combination of as well as…


To learn more about sports-related concussions, check out Part I of this series here

Photo by on

Sports-related concussions among children have been steadily increasing year after year. Specifically, the rate of concussions that occurred during sports doubled for children ages 8 to 13 and tripled for children ages 14 to 19 between 1997 and 2007.

Between 2010 and 2016 around two million children visited the emergency room because of a concussion sustained during sport and recreational activities. Out of these 2 million visits, it was found that about 45% of visits were due to a concussion that resulted from a high contact sport, such as football, soccer, lacrosse, and wrestling.

What To Look Out For

Second Impact Syndrome (SIS) was first…


Photo by on

Athletes in both contact and non-contact sports are at an increased risk for . The term sports-related concussion has historically been used to define “low velocity injuries that cause brain ‘shaking’ resulting in clinical symptoms and that are not necessarily related to a pathological injury.”

Sports-related concussions usually fall into a subset of TBI known as mild TBI. A concussion occurs when an athlete experiences some form of external force that causes their brain to shake back and forth within the skull which results in impairment of neurological functioning. Sports-related concussions are often diffuse in nature due…


Photo by on

Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder: The Mimicker

A childhood disorder that tends to mimic other disorders is . DMDD is defined in the DSM-V as severe, recurring temper outbursts that can occur verbally or behaviorally and are disproportionate in intensity or duration to the provocation.

These outbursts are inconsistent with the child’s developmental level and must occur three or more times a week. The child’s mood in between outbursts is constantly irritable or angry and is witnessed by parents, teachers, and friends.

The outbursts and irritable mood must be present for one year or more and during that time the child has not…


Photo by on

What is OCD?

is an anxiety disorder that can often be mistaken for another disorder in children due to its symptoms. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-V), a diagnosis of OCD requires the presence of obsessions and/or compulsions. Obsessions are recurrent and relentless thoughts, urges, or images that are considered intrusive and undesirable and produce significant anxiety or distress.

In children, obsessions are often based on themes of contamination, harm, sexuality, morality, aggression, and the “just right” feeling. …


Photo by on

Men and women have always been perceived as completely different beings. Given both the biological and physical differences between males and females, wouldn’t it make sense that these differences transversed into the mental health plane? Well let’s find out!

Men vs Women: Conduct Disorder

is defined as repetitive and continuous behavior that violates the basic rights of others or societal norms. These behaviors are separated into four categories which are aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of the rules. CD has been found to be more prevalent in males than females. …


© 2015 Zalmaï for Human Rights Watch

The Den Bosch model is a trauma-focused group treatment that was originally developed in the Netherlands for refugees and asylum seekers who were victims of political and war violence. The Den Bosch model is similar to the other phase-oriented trauma treatments but has unique adaptations that cover the specific needs of refugees and asylum seekers.

It has five phases and combines aspects from “psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and supportive treatment approaches.” In addition to the group therapy sessions, participants also take part in nonverbal therapies, such as art, music, or psychomotor body therapy.


As of June 2019, there are 25.9 million refugees and 3.5 million asylum seekers in the world.

Refugees

A is a person who was forced to leave their home country due to a “well-founded fear” of being persecuted or harmed based on their belonging to a specific race, religion, ethnicity, or political party. Refugees have certain protections under international laws.

Asylum Seekers

, on the other hand, are people who are trying to apply for international protections but have not yet been legally identified as refugees. Asylum seekers must prove to their host country that they meet the requirements necessary for…


Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a disorder that causes a person to be unable to form healthy emotional relationships with others. It is developed at a young age and occurs when there is a lack of attachment to the child’s primary caregiver. This lack of attachment occurs from the pathogenic care that the child receives while young which is usually caused by abuse or neglect but can also happen when the primary caregiver of the child is always changing.

Symptoms and Behaviors

Children who are most likely to have RAD come from physically and/or emotionally abusive homes or from orphanages and foster cares…


The Malleus Maleficarum was a treatise on witchcraft that explained how to identify and prosecute witches. It also described the ways in which witches could cause maleficium and their relationship with the Devil. It was written by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger, who were both Catholic inquisitors, in 1486 and was first published in Germany in 1487.

It is important to note that when the Malleus Maleficarum was first published it was written in Latin which meant that the only individuals who could read it at the time were academic scholars, inquisitors, and judges. …

Hunter Leckonby

Clinical Psychologist M.A. (Psy.D. 2023) Advocate for mental health awareness and cultural diversity.

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store